ES Fiber Production Technology

ES Fiber Production Technology

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1. Raw materials

1) PP raw materials in ES staple fibers

In ES fibers, PP is in the core layer of the bicomponent fiber.

The requirements for the quality indicators of the special PP resin are mainly high MFR with small fluctuations, high isotactic index and low ash content. These properties directly affect the spinning performance and the quality of the finished fiber. Generally, MfR is controlled at 20~35g/10min, and the isotactic index is greater than 95%.

2) PE raw materials in ES staple fibers

The requirements that bicomponent fiber HDPE raw materials need to meet are low melting point, good spinnability, and meet the requirements of highend sanitary materials for raw material performance.

There are no floating silk, doubling, or broken silk in the production process, and the winding is good. In the processing of needlepunched, spunlace, and thermally bonded nonwoven fabrics, the fiber combing process is normal, and the thermal bonding performance is good. Such raw materials are of good quality.

At present, the production processes of HDPE for twocomponent fibers are mainly solution method, gas phase method, and slurry method, 18~22 g/10 min, density 0.950~0.960g/cm3, melting point 130 .

ES fiber is used to produce hot air nonwoven fabrics or hot rolled nonwoven fabrics, and the requirements for polyethylene are different. In the production of hot air nonwoven fabrics, the fiber mesh surface and the hot air are in surface contact within the area. Selecting polyethylene with a narrow melting range helps to improve the feel and strength of the nonwoven fabric. The hot rolling bonding process relies on a pair of heated rollers to squeeze and bond, and the resulting nonwoven fabric is point bonded. Selecting polyethylene with a wide melting range to increase the mesh bonding between hot rolling points helps to improve the longitudinal and transverse strength of the hot rolled nonwoven fabric.

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2. Equipment

ES staple fiber equipment uses a composite spinning machine to produce ES coreskin composite fibers, the core of which is the design and processing of the spinning box and components.

Except that the design of the spinning component and the cooling air blow is related to the required fiber crosssection, the design of the spinning line is usually not related to the fiber crosssection. Although the design of the cooling air blow is very specialized for a certain fiber variety, the cooling equipment is suitable for the production of most fiber varieties. There are several technologies for the design of spinning components with different fiber crosssections. Many patents have been published in this field. One of the most commonly used technologies is the stacking technology. In this technology, two polymer melt streams are introduced through the stacking plate of the special component of the twocomponent fiber to form a conjugated (twocomponent) melt flow before entering the spinneret. The main design criterion for the spinneret arrangement is the pressure drop of each polymer melt stream.

The twostep method for producing ES staple fibers is not much different from the current processing equipment for conventional staple fibers. It mainly depends on the choice of output.

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3. Production and process

There are currently two main methods for producing ES short fiber non-woven fabrics:

1) Hot air production line. That is, the two-step method for producing non-woven fabrics. The non-woven fabric has the characteristics of high fluffiness, good elasticity, soft hand feel, strong warmth retention, good air permeability and water permeability, but its strength is low and easy to deform. The hot air cotton produced is now widely used in the production of KN95 masks.

2) Hot rolling production line. That is, the one-step method for producing ES fiber non-woven fabrics (represented by the two-component spinning and web technology of Reifenhauser, Germany, Hengtian Jiahua Nonwoven Fabrics Co., Ltd. uses this method to produce non-woven fabrics). The product quality of the two-step method is better than that of the one-step method.


3) Pre-spinning process:

The spinning temperature is determined according to the MFR of the two raw materials. If the MfR ratio of PE and PP is close to 1.0, the fiber cross-section is a skin-core type. If the MfR ratio is greater than 1.5, the fiber cross-section is a skin-core type. Generally, the spinning box temperature is 250~270, the side blowing humidity is 85%±5%, the side blowing temperature is (20 ± 2), and the side blowing rate is 1.0~1.6m/s.

The ratio of the two components is generally 50:50, and it can be adjusted according to performance requirements. The ratio of PE and PP can be from 30:70 to 70:30.

4) Post-spinning process:

1. The post-spinning stretching speed has a significant effect on the fiber curvature. If the stretching speed is reduced, the fiber will stay in the crimping box for a longer time. After the fiber is curled, the curled waveform is fully shaped before it is stretched under the extrusion state, and the fiber curvature is increased. Low-speed stretching is conducive to improving the production stability of non-woven fabrics and reducing thermal shrinkage during non-woven fabric production.

2. Most ES fibers use two-stage stretching. The main stretching is in the first stage, which is to thin the original yarn, orient the macromolecules, and increase the strength. The stretching multiple is generally 3.5-4.5, which is more suitable. The second stage stretching is auxiliary stretching, which mainly orients and crystallizes the macromolecules further, and also has the function of tense heat setting, reducing the thermal shrinkage of the fiber in the production of non-woven fabrics. The second stretching ratio of ES fiber production is 1.1. The total stretching ratio should be high rather than low. The fiber macromolecules produced with high stretching ratios are fully oriented, have good rigidity, and the non-woven fabrics produced are fluffy and soft.

3. The curling effect of ES fiber is related to the opening, web formation, fabric strength and feel of non-woven fabrics. The curling waveform is small, the fiber cohesion is small, it is easy to fly, the opening effect is not good, the non-woven fabric is not strong enough, and the fabric surface is not full and fluffy. Fibers with larger curling waveforms occupy a larger two-dimensional space. After the web is formed, there are more contact points and bonding points between the fibers, and the strength of the non-woven fabric increases.

4. The relaxation heat setting time and temperature affect the fluffiness, saturation and other indicators of the finished fiber. The relaxation heat setting temperature is generally set at 70-120.

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